NCERT Solutions for Class 8 English It So Happened Supplementary Reader Chapter 11 Ancient Education System of India free PDF is given here. These Solutions contains answers to all questions provided in the textbook. Class 8th English It So Happened Chapter 11 solutions are explained by the expert English teacher and as per NCERT (CBSE) guidelines.
Class 8 English Supplementary Reader Chapter 11 Ancient Education System of India
Comprehension Check Page No. 92
Question 1: Why were travellers attracted towards India?
Answer: The fame of Indian culture, wealth, religions, philosophies, art, architecture, as well as its educational practices had spread far and wide. Also, the education system of ancient times was regarded as a source for the knowledge, traditions and practices that guided and encouraged humanity. So, to the travellers India was a land of wonder and they were attracted towards our country.
Question 2: What were the sources of the ancient education system?
Answer 2: The ancient system of education was the education of the Vedas, Brahmanas, Upanishads and Dharmasutras. Medical treatises of Charaka and Sushruta teachings were the sources of learning. Besides, the sources of learning were drawn from various disciplines such as Itihas (history), Anviksiki (logic), Mimamsa (interpretation), Shilpashastra (architecture), Arthashastra (polity), Varta (agriculture, trade, commerce, animal husbandry) and Dhanurvidya (archery).
Question 3: What were the features of education system in ancient India?
Answer 3: Some of the features of education system in ancient India included the following:
- Teaching and learning followed the tenets of Vedas and Upanishads fulfilling duties towards self, family and society, thus encompassing all aspects of life
- Education system focused both on learning and physical development
- Education in India had a heritage of being pragmatic, achievable and complementary to life.
Question 4: What was the role of guru in pupils’ lives?
Answer 4: The Gurus and their pupils worked conscientiously together to become proficient in all aspects of learning. In order to assess pupils’ learning, shastrartha (learned debates) were organised. Also, pupils at an advanced stage of learning guided younger pupils.
Comprehension Check Page No. 97
Question 1: Where did nuns and monks receive their education?
Answer: The nuns and monks received their education from various monasteries or viharas which were educational centres of art and learning. These centres were mainly set up to meditate, discuss and debate with the learned for their quest for knowledge during the ancient period.
Question 2: What is Panini known for?
Answer: Panini was a Sanskrit grammarian who gave a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics, phonology, and morphology. He was an expert in language and grammar and authored one of the greatest works on grammar called Ashtadhyayi.
Question 3: Which university did Xuan Zang and I-Qing study at?
Answer: The Chinese scholars’ I-Qing and Xuan Zang visited Nalanda in the 7th century CE. When Xuan Zang visited it, Nalanda was called as Nala, which was a centre of higher learning in various subjects.
Question 4: Which subject did Xuan Zang study in India?
Answer: Xuan Zang studied logic, grammar, Sanskrit, and the Yogacara school of Buddhism during his time at Nalanda.
Question 5: How did society help in the education of the students?
Answer: Financial support came from rich merchants, wealthy parents and society. Besides gifts of buildings, the universities received gifts of land. This form of free education was also prevalent in other ancient universities like Valabhi, Vikramshila and Jagaddala.
Discuss the following questions in small groups and write your answers.
Question 1: Which salient features of the ancient education system of India made it globally renowned.
Answer: Some of the salient features of the ancient education system of India that made it globally renowned are listed as below:
- As our ancient education system in India evolved over the period, it focused on the holistic development of the individual that included taking care of both the inner and the outer self.
- The ancient system focused on the spiritual, physical, moral and intellectual aspects of life.
- It emphasized on values such as truthfulness, humility, self-reliance, discipline, and respect for all creative works.
- Students were taught to appreciate and strike the balance between human beings and nature.
- Teachers taught and followed the tenets of Vedas and Upanishads which mentioned about fulfilling one’s responsibilities towards self, family and society covering all the aspects of life.
Question 2: Why do you think students from other countries came to India to study at that time?
Answer 2: In ancient times, students from China, Korea, Tibet, Burma, Ceylon, Java, Nepal and other distant countries were attracted to come to India and study as India was considered a land of wonder with a rich source of knowledge that had educational centres of higher learning. Various monasteries or viharas were set up for monks and nuns to meditate, debate and discuss with the learned for their quest for knowledge during this period.
Besides, Takshashila was also a noted centre of learning that included religious teachings of Buddhism, for several centuries. It continued to attract students from around the world until its destruction in the 5th century CE.
Question 3: Why is education considered ‘a way of life’?
Answer 3: In ancient India, both formal and informal ways of education system existed. Indigenous education was imparted at home, in temples, pathshalas, tols, chatuspadis and gurukuls. There were people in homes, villages and temples who guided young children in imbibing pious ways of life, that is why education is called way of life.
Question 4: What do you understand by holistic education?
Answer 4: Holistic education refers to the development of the inner and outer self of an individual which prepares them for life. Although ancient education system in India was free, but it was not centralized. Its foundations were mostly laid in the rich cultural traditions of India that helped in the development of the physical, spiritual, intellectual and artistic aspects of life holistically.
Question 5: Why do you think Takshasila and Nalanda have been declared heritage sites?
Answer 5: Takshashila was an ancient Indian city, It is an important archaeological site and the UNESCO declared it to be a World Heritage Site in 1980. Nalanda was one of the oldest universities of the world and UNESCO declared the ruins of Nalanda Mahavihara, a world heritage site.