NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 8 Law and Social Justice contain solutions to the exercises given in the Civics book Social and Political Life. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance. You can read and download all the questions and answers in PDF format.
Class 8 Civics Law and Social Justice Ncert Textbook Questions and Answers
Question 1: Talk to two workers (For example, construction workers, farm workers, factory workers, workers at any shop) to find out if they are receiving the minimum wages laid down by law.
Answer: Students have to do this by themselves.
Question 2: What are the advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India?
Answer: The advantages to foreign companies in setting up production in India are:
(i) Cheap labour: Wages that the companies pay to workers say in the U.S.A. are far higher than what they have to pay workers in India. For lower pay, foreign companies can get longer hours of work. Additional expenses such as housing facilities for workers are also fewer. Thus, companies can save costs and earn higher profits.
(ii) Cost cutting: Cost cutting can also be done by other more dangerous means. Working conditions including lower safety measures are used as ways of cutting costs in India. Thus the foreign companies look for setting up production in India.
Question 3: Do you think the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy got justice? Discuss.
Answer: The victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did get complete justice. This tragedy was caused due to gross neglect of safety measures by the factory management. The government of India represented the people to legally claim compensation for the affected people and demanded 3 billion dollars as compensation. But the company paid only 470 million dollars. Even today, after 36 years of catastrophe, people are still seeking justice. Though the financial compensation for the victims’ families was adequate, many of them are fighting for safe drinking water, healthcare facilities and jobs.
Question 4: What do we mean when we speak of law enforcement? Who is responsible for enforcement? Why is enforcement so important?
Answer: Law enforcement means the implementation of law. Government is responsible for enforcement. Enforcement is important when the law seeks to protect the people belonging to the weaker section from those who are strong and powerful. Enforcement is important to ensure that every worker gets fair wages. When workers are poor or powerless, the fear of losing future earnings or facing reprisals forces them to accept low wages. Employers use this as a tool to pay workers less than the fair wage. In such cases, it is crucial that the laws are enforced.
Question 5: How can laws ensure that markets work in a manner that is fair? Give two examples to support your answer.
Answer: Laws can ensure that markets work in a fair manner. The frequently upgraded Minimum Wages Law ensures that workers are not exploited and over-worked by companies that hire them. Also, a law keeping checks on the quality of production makes sure that sub- standard goods do not enter the market.
Question 6: Imagine yourself to be a worker working in a chemical factory, which has received orders from the government to move to a different site 100 kms away from the present location. Write about how your life would change? Read out your responses in the classroom.
Answer: Students should do this exercise with the help of the teacher
Question 7: Write a paragraph on the various roles of the government that you have read about in this unit.
Answer: The government plays many roles in any State:
(i) The government provides public facilities like water supply, healthcare, education and sanitation and ensures that these amenities are not overtaken by private enterprises.
(ii) A major role of the government is to control the activities of private companies by making, enforcing and upholding laws so as to prevent unfair practices and ensure social justice. This means that the government has to make ‘appropriate laws’ and also has to enforce the laws. The government makes laws to protect workers in production factories- laws on minimum wages, controlling working conditions and safety measures. It also makes laws for markets that protect consumers against over- pricing and sub-standard products. The government also has a law against child labour.
(iii) The government punishes organizations that do not follow policies put in place to protect the environment against pollution.
Question 8: What are the sources of environmental pollution in your area? Discuss with respect to (a) air; (b) water and (c) soil. What are the steps being taken to reduce the pollution? Can you suggest some other measures?
Answer: The various sources of environment pollution in our area are as follows:
- Pollution of air: Exhaust from factories and vehicles.
- Pollution of water: Dumping of chemical fertilizers and garbage from factories, farms and houses in water bodies.
- Pollution of Soil: Excessive use of pesticides and fertilisers, disposal of domestic and industrial garbage.
Steps taken to reduce pollution are:
- Stop the misuse or overuse of resources.
- Taking strict action against the practices that cause environmental pollutions like use of plastic bags, disposal of all type of wastes and harmful emissions from industries.
- Promoting the use of CNG as fuel in vehicles.
- Encourage recycling of used materials.
Question 9: How was environment treated earlier? What has been the change in perception? Discuss.
Answer: The environment was treated as a ‘free’ entity and any industry or individual could pollute the environment without any restrictions. There were very few laws to protect and conserve the environment in India. Government also paid no attention to safeguarding the environment.
Now, there has been a change in perception. Government has introduced various laws to protect and conserve the environment such as Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. The courts have given out a number of judgments, upholding the right to a healthy environment as intrinsic to the fundamental right to life. Various laws and procedures to check pollution and clean rivers have been formed. The government can also impose a fine to those who pollute our precious environment.