NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Ownerscontain solutions to the exercises given in the History book Our Pasts -III. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance. You can read and download all the questions and answers in PDF format.
Class 8 History Chapter Chapter 6 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners Ncert Textbook Questions Solved
Question 1: What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?
Answer: Cotton and silk textiles had a huge market in Europe. Indian textiles were by far the most popular, both for their fine quality and exquisite craftsmanship. Different varieties of Indian textiles were sold in the Western markets; for example, chintz, cossaes or khassa, bandanna and jamdani. From the 1680’s, there started a craze for printed Indian cotton textiles in England and Europe, mainly for their exquisite floral designs, fine texture and relative cheapness. Rich people of England including the Queen herself wore clothes of Indian fabric.
Question 2: What is jamdani?
Answer: Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread was used in this.
Question 3: What is bandanna?
Answer: Bandannas are any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word “bandhna” (Hindi for tying) and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.
Question 4: Who are the Agarias?
Answer: The Agarias are an Indian community of iron smelters. In the late nineteenth century, after a series of famines, a lot of Agarias deserted their villages and never worked as smelters again.
Question 5: Fill in the blanks:
(a) The word chintz comes from the word ____________.
(b) Tipu’s sword was made of ________ steel.
Answer: (b) Wootz
(c) India’s textile exports declined in the __________ century.
Answer: (c) nineteenth
Question 6: How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?
Answer: The names of different textiles tell us about their histories as mentioned below:
(i) Muslin: European traders first encountered five cotton cloths from India carried by Arab merchants inMosul in present day Iraq. So they began referring to all finally woven textiles as “muslin” – a word that acquired wide currency.
(ii) Calico: When the Portuguese first came to India in search of spices, they landed in Calicut on the Kerala coast in South West India. The cotton textiles which they took back to Europe, along with the spices, came to called “Calico” (derived from Calicut) and subsequently calico became the general name for all cotton textiles.
(iii) Chintz is derived from the Hindi word “chhint”, a cloth with small and colourful flowery designs.
(iv) Bandanna now refers to any brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally the term derived from the word “bandhna” (Hindi for tying).
(v) The other cloths were noted by their place of origin such as, Kazimbazaar, Patna, Orissa, Calcutta, etc.
Question 7: Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early Eighteenth century?
Answer: The wool and silk producers in England protested against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century, because due to the fame of Indian textiles in the European markets due to their designs and their prices, they were unable to compete with them. The English wool and silk producers wanted a ban on Indian textiles so that they could grow in England. Following this, the spinning jenny was also introduced in the European markets.
Question 8: How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?
Answer: The development of cotton industries in Britain affected textile producers in India in several ways. Some of them are mentioned below:
- Indian textiles had to compete with English cotton industries both in England and in India
- Expansion of the British cotton industries led to the shrinkage of Indian textile producers.
- High dutieswere imposed on Indian textiles in Britain due to which it became difficult to export textiles to England.
- Thousands of Indian textile producers were rendered jobless due to the British taking over the market with their industries.
- By the 1830s British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets that severely affected not only the specialist weavers but also the spinners.
Question 9: Why did the Indian iron smelting industry decline in the nineteenth century?
Answer: The Indian iron smelting industry declined in the nineteenth century for the following reasons:
(i) The forest laws implemented by the colonial administration prevented the free movement of people in reserved forests. Charcoal – an essential ingredient in the iron smelting process – was therefore not accessible.
(ii) The iron smelters were in return required to pay a very high amount in tax to the forest department for every furnace they used. This reduced their income and discouraged them from the development of their business.
(iii) By the late nineteenth century, iron and steel was being imported from Britain. Iron- smiths began using the imported iron to manufacture utensils and implements. This competition reduced the demand for iron produced by local smelters.
(iv) In the late nineteenth century, a series of famines devastated the dry tracts of India. As a result, many of the local smelters, for example, the Agarias stopped work, deserted their villages, and migrated, looking for some other work to survive the hard times. By the early twentieth century, the artisans producing iron and steel faced a new competition from iron and steel factories.
Question 10: What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?
Answer: The development of cotton industries in Britain affected textile producers in India in the following ways:
- Competition – They had to face large British industries who were already there in the market
- Export – It was a challenge for them to export to England due to the huge export prices.
- Failure – English cotton textiles ousted Indian textiles from its parent markets like America, Africa and Europe.
- No Buyers – Europeans started avoiding the weavers of Bengal and did not buy from them, which made the Bengal weavers the worst-hit.
Question 11: What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?
Answer: The following reasons helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War:
- During the first world war, the British steel industries were producing steel for fulfilling the war needs of Europe. Due to this, the import of British steel declined in India.
- Indian markets turned to TISCO for rail work to supply iron and steel.
- At the same time, TISCO also built shells and carriage wheels for fulfilling the War needs of Britain.
- By 1919, the colonial government was purchasing about 90% of the steel manufactured by TISCO.