NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India contains the solutions to the exercises given in the textbook. These solutions also contain answers to all the let’s discuss questions. These NCERT solutions are useful for students as they help to score high marks in the exams.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Let’s Discuss
Let’s Discuss Page no. 43
Question 1: Some people say that the Bengal famine happened because there was a shortage of rice. Study the table and find out whether you agree with the statement?
Answer: No, I do not agree that the Bengal famine happened due to a shortage of rice. From the table, the availability was much higher than in 1941, although lower than in 1942. However, there can be a number of other causes like improper distribution, poor carryover stocks due to less production in 1941, malnutrition or disease, etc.
Question 2: Which year shows a drastic decline in food availability?
Answer: The year showing a drastic decline in food availability is 1941.
Let’s Discuss Page no. 45
Question 1: Why is agriculture a seasonal activity?
Answer: Agriculture has a sowing season and a harvesting season which is a very busy period for farmers. Most of the work is done during these periods. When the plants are growing and maturing no significant amount of work is there.
Question 2: Why is Ramu unemployed for about four months in a year?
Answer: Agriculture has a sowing and harvesting season which is a very busy period for farmers and requires extra labour. So casual labourers like Ramu get employment during this period for about eight months in a year.
Question 3: What does Ramu do when he is unemployed?
Answer: Ramu is a casual agricultural labourer and is only seasonally employed during sowing and harvesting. During that period, he gets employment in bricklaying, or in construction activities in the village
Question 4: Who are supplementing income in Ramu’s family?
Answer: Ramu’s wife Sunhari and his son Somu are supplementing the income in Ramu’s family. Somu works for the Sarpanch by looking after the cattle and is paid 1,000 for his work Sunhari also works as house cleaner and a casual labourer during the busy season.
Question 5: Why does Ramu face difficulty when he is unable to have work? When is Ramu food insecure?
Answer: Ramu is seasonally unemployed and does odd jobs to survive But Tome times he is unable to get any work at all and during that period he faces difficulty in getting 2 square meals for his family.
Question 6: When is Ramu food insecure?
Answer: Ramu who is a casual labourer in agriculture becomes seasonally unemployed and does odd jobs during that period But Sometimes, he is unable to get any work at all and is totally unemployed and faces poverty and is unable to buy food for his children. During this period he is food insecure during the four months when he is unemployed.
Let’s Discuss Page no. 47
Question 1: Does Ahmad have a regular income from rickshaw-pulling?
Answer: (i) Ahmad a rickshaw puller does not have a regular income from rickshaw pulling; his earnings fluctuate every day.
(ii) Sometimes, he gets enough earning to save some amount after buying his day to day necessities. On other days he is barely able to earn enough to survive.
Question 2: How does the yellow card help Ahmad
Answer: (i) Ahmad has a yellow card which is a PDS card for below poverty line people. With this card Ahmad gets sufècient quantity of wheat, rice, sugar and kerosene oil for his daily use at rates below the market rates.
(ii) In this way, Ahmad is able to survive even with less income from Rickshaw pulling.
Let’s Discuss Page no. 47
Question 1: Study Graph 4.1 and answer the following questions:
(a) In which year did our country cross the 200 million tonne per year mark in foodgrain production?
(b) In which decade did India experience the highest decadal increase in foodgrain production?
(c) Is production increase consistent in India since 2000–01?
Answer: (a) From 2010-11 our country crossed the 200 million tonnes food grain production every year.
(b) India experienced the highest decadal increase in food grain production between 2000-2010.
(c) No the increase in food grain production did not remain consistent after 2000-01 because it declined in 2012-13.
Let’s Discuss Page no. 51
Question 1: Study the Graph 4.2 and answer the following questions:
(a) In which recent year foodgrain stock with the government was maximum?
(b) What is the minimum buffer stock norm for the FCI?
(c) Why were the FCI granaries overflowing with foodgrains?
Answer: (a) In the years 2001-02 and 2003-04 our country crossed the 200 million tonnes per year mark in food grain production.
(b) India experienced the highest decadal increase in food grain production between 1980- 1990.
(c) No the increase in food grain production did not remain consistent after 2000-01 because it declined in 2002-03.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Exercises
Exercises Questions and Answers
Question 1: How is food security ensured in India?
Answer: Food security is ensured in a country when the three dimensions of food security are taken care of. The three dimensions are:
- Availability of food – Presence of enough food for all the persons
- Accessibility of food – Absence of barrier on access to food
- Affordability of food – Capability of all persons to buy food of acceptable quality
Question 2: Which are the people more prone to food insecurity?
Answer: The people more prone to food insecurity are:
- Landless people with little or no land to depend on.
- Traditional artisans
- Providers of traditional services, petty self-employed workers and destitute, including beggars
- Urban casual labourers engaged in seasonal activities.
- The SCs, STs and some sections of the OBCs.
- People affected by natural disasters.
Question 3: Which states are more food insecure in India?
Answer: The economically-backward states with high incidence of poverty are more food insecure in India. The states of Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, parts of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for the largest number of food insecure people in the country.
Question 4: Do you believe that green revolution has made India self-sufficient in food grains? How?
Answer: After independence, India adopted a new strategy in agriculture, which resulted in the ‘Green Revolution’ especially in the production of wheat and rice. Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, officially recorded the impressive strides of the Green revolution in agriculture by releasing a special stamp entitled ‘Wheat Revolution’ in July 1968. The success of wheat was later replicated in rice. The increase in food grains was, however, disproportionate. The highest rate of growth was achieved in Punjab and Haryana, where food grain production jumped from 7.23 million tonnes in 1964–65 to reach an all-time high of 30.33 million tonnes in 1995–96.
Question 5: A section of people in India are still without food. Explain?
Answer: A section of people in India are still without food despite a large increase in the food grain production in the country. This is because of the increased price of commodities and people not being able to afford food to feed themselves and their families. Unemployment can also be a cause of this chronic hunger that poor people suffer in rural areas.
Question 6: What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity?
Answer: When there is a disaster or a calamity, the production of food grains decreases in the affected areas. This in turn creates a shortage of food in the area. Due to food shortage, the prices go up. The raised prices of food affects the capacity of many people to buy the same. When a calamity occurs in a very widespread area or is stretched over a long period of time, it may cause a situation of starvation. Massive starvation can take the form of famine.
Question 7: Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?
Answer: Seasonal hunger is related to cycles of food growing and harvesting. This is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities, and in urban areas because of the casual labour (e.g., there is less work for casual construction labour during the rainy season). This type of hunger exists when a person is unable to get work for the entire year.
Chronic hunger is a consequence of diets persistently inadequate in terms of quantity and/or quality. Poor people suffer from chronic hunger because of their very low income and in turn, inability to buy food even for survival.
Question 8: What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?
Answer: The government has designed the food security system carefully to ensure availability of food to all sections of the society. The system is composed of two componfents, i.e.,
- Buffer Stock
- Public Distribution System (PDS)
In addition to the above, the government has launched several Poverty Alleviation Programmes (PAPs) that comprise a component of food security. Some of these programmes are Mid-day Meals, Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) and Food For Work (FFW).
The two schemes launched by the government in this direction are:
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY). This scheme was launched in December 2000. Under this scheme, one crore of the poorer among the BPL families, to be covered by the Public Distribution System, were identified. Twenty-five kilograms of food grains were made available to each of the – eligible family at a highly subsidised rate. After about two years, the quantity was enhanced from twenty-five kg to thirty-five kg. In June 2003 and August 2004, an additional fifty lakh families were added to this scheme twice. In this way, about two crore families have been brought under the AAY.
Annapurna Scheme (APS). It was launched in 2,000 with special target group of ‘indigent senior citizens’. The functioning of scheme was linked with existing network of the PDS. Under this scheme, 10 kg of food grains were made available to them free of cost.
Question 9: Why buffer stock is created by the government?
Answer: A buffer stock of food grains is created by the government so that it can be distributed in the food deficit areas and among the poorer strata of the society at a price much lower than the market price. A buffer stock also helps to resolve the problem of food shortage during adverse weather conditions, disaster or calamity. Thus maintaining buffer stock is a step taken by the government in order to ensure food security.
Question 10: Write notes on:
(a) Minimum support price
(b) Buffer stock
(c) Issue price
Answer: (a) Minimum Support Price (MSP) – This is the pre-announced price at which the government purchases food grains particularly, wheat and rice from the farmer in order to crate a buffer stock. This price is announced by the government every year before the sowing season to give incentive to the farmers to raise the production of the desired crop. The rising MSPs have raised the maintenance cost of procuring food grains by the government as well as induced farmers to divert land from production of coarse grains to the production of these crops
(b) Buffer Stock – Buffer stock is the stock of food grains, mainly wheat and rice, procured by the Government through the Food Corporation of India. This buffer stock is used by the government in case of any calamity or disaster or for the poorer section of the society.
(c) Issue Price – In order to help the poor strata of the society, the government provides them food grains from the buffer stock at a price much lower than the market price. This subsidized price is known as the Issue Price
(d) Fair Price Shops – The food grains procured by the government through the Food Corporation of India are distributed among the poorer sections of the society through ration shops. These are called ‘Fair Price Shops’ because food grains are supplied to the poor through these shops at a price lower than the market price, which is often high.
Question 11: What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?
Answer: Ration shops also, known as Fair Price Shops, keep stock of foodgrains, sugar, and kerosene for cooking. These items are sold to people at a price lower than the market price. However, there are problems of functioning of the ration shops:
- The quality of food provided to poor people is less than the expected quality of foodgrains.
- The ration shop deals indulge in malpractices and do not provide the poor people with entire quantity they deserve.
- Some ration shops are not opened regularly and this causes discomfort to the poor.
- The ration shopkeepers even update wrong entries in the name of the poor people.
Question 12: Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items.
Answer: The cooperatives are playing an important role in food security in India, especially in the southern and western parts of the country. The cooperative societies set up shops to sell goods to the poor people at lower prices. For example, out of all fair price shops operating in Tamil Nadu, nearly 94 percent are being run by the cooperatives. In Delhi, Mother Dairy is providing milk and vegetables to the consumers at controlled prices which are decided by the Delhi Government. Amul is another example in this regard. It has brought about the White Revolution in the country. There are many more cooperatives and NGOs also working intensively towards this direction.