NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Agriculture contain solutions to the exercises given in the Geography book Resources and Development. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance. You can read and download all the questions and answers in PDF format.
Class 8 Geography Agriculture Ncert Textbook Questions and Answers
Question 1. Answer the following questions.
(i) What is agriculture?
Answer: Agriculture is a primary activity that includes growing crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers and rearing livestock. Agriculture is a primary activity, as it is connected with the extraction and production of natural resources.
(ii) Name the factors influencing agriculture?
Answer: Various factors influencing agriculture are – Favourable topography of the soil and Climate.
(iii) What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Answer: Shifting cultivation or slash-and-burn cultivation is a type of farming activity in which a plot of land is cleared by cutting down trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the land has lost its fertility, it is abandoned. The farmers then move to a new place.
This type of farming has the following disadvantages.
- It leads to deforestation.
- The land used loses its fertility after some time
- It also leads to soil erosion
- Burning of trees causes air pollution
- Crops are cultivated on small plots of land which is insufficient for feeding a large population.
(iv) What is plantation agriculture?
Answer: Plantation agriculture is a type of commercial farming where a single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton is grown. Large amount of labour and capital is required in this type of farming. The produce is either processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world, like rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka, etc.
(v) Name the fibre crops and name the climatic conditions required for their growth.
Answer: Jute and Cotton are fiber crops. The climatic conditions necessary for the growth of Jute are high temperature, heavy rainfall and high humidity. Similarly, for the growth of cotton, high temperature, light rainfall, bright sunshine are required.
Question 2. Tick the correct answer.
(i) Horticulture means
(a) growing of fruits and vegetables
(b) primitive farming
(c) growing of wheat
Answer: (a) Growing of fruits and vegetables
(ii) Golden fibre refers to
Solution: (c) Jute
(iii) Leading producers of coffee
Answer: (a) Brazil
Question 3. Give reasons.
(i) In India agriculture is a primary activity.
Answer: Primary activities are related to production and extraction of natural resources such as fishing, agriculture, mining, whereas tertiary activities are those that provide support to primary and secondary sectors in carrying out their activities like transportation, banking etc.
(ii) Different crops are grown in different regions.
Answer: The type of crop grown is dependent upon the type of soil and the type of climate of a region. Since different regions have different soil types and climatic conditions so, a crop may have favourable factors of growth in a particular region only. The demand of produce, labour and level of technology are some other factors that decide the type of crops grown in a particular region.
Question 4. Distinguish between the followings.
(i) Primary activities and tertiary activities
|Primary activities||Tertiary activities|
|Connected with the extraction and production of natural resources||Provide support to the primary and secondary sectors|
|Example: Agriculture, Fishing||Example: Services such as banking and transport.|
(ii) Subsistence farming and intensive farming.
|Subsistence farming||Intensive farming.|
|Practised to meet the needs of the farmar’s family; involves the use of low level technology and household labor for producing a small output||A type of subsistence farming; involves the annual cultivation of a small plot of lands using simple tools and more labour.|