NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory contain solutions to the exercises given in the History book Our Pasts -III. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance. You can read and download all the questions and answers in PDF format.
Class 8 History Chapter 2 From Trade to Territory Questions and Answers
Question 1: Match the following:
|“Tigre of Mysore”||right to collect land revenue|
|Rani Channamma||Criminal court|
|sipahi||led an anti-British movement|
|Diwani||right to collect land revenue|
|“Tigre of Mysore”||Tipu Sultan|
|faujdari Adalat||Criminal court|
|Rani Channamma||led an anti-British movement|
Question 2: Fill in the blanks:
(a) The British conquest of Bengal began with the Battle of ______
(b) Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan were the rulers of ________
(c) Dalhousie implemented the Doctrine of ________
(d) Maratha kingdoms were located mainly in the _______ part of India.
Question 3: State whether true or false:
(a) The Mughal empire became stronger in the eighteenth century.
(b) TheEnglishEastIndiaCompanywastheonlyEuropeancompanythattradedwith India.
(c) Maharaja Ranjit Singh wasthe ruler of Punjab.
(d) The British did not introduce administrative changes in the territories they conquered.
Question 4: What attracted European trading companies to India?
Answer: European trading companies were attracted to India due to the following reasons:
(i) Trading with India was highly profitable and fruitful to the businessmen in Europe.
(ii) The European trading companies purchased goods at cheaper and sold them in Europe at the higher prices.
(iii) The fine qualities of cotton and silk produced in India had a big market in Europe.
(iv) Indian spices like – pepper, cloves, cardamom and cinnamon were in great demand in Europe.
(v) The intra fights between the Indian rulers helped the European trading companies to establish their power through the Divide and Rule policy.
Question 5: What were the areas of conflict between theBengal Nawabs and the East India Company?
Answer: The areas of conflict between the Bengal nawabs and the East India Company were:
(i) The Bengal nawabs denied concessions to the East India Company on many occasions.
(ii) They demanded large tributes for the Company’s right to trade.
(iii) They denied the company any right to mint coins.
(iv) They stopped the company from extending its fortifications.
(vi) The company denied to pay taxes.
(vii) The company officials wrote disrespectful letters to nawabs and humiliated them.
Question 6: How did the assumption of Diwani benefit the East India Company?
Answer: The Diwani right to the East India Company benefited it in several ways:
(i) The Diwani allowed the Company to use the vast revenue resources of Bengal.
(ii) The East India Company monopolized trade and began direct plunder of India’s wealth.
(iii) Revenues from India financed Company expenses. These revenues were used to purchase cotton and silk textiles in India, maintain Company troops, and meet the cost of building the Company fort and offices at Calcutta.
(iv) The company used its political power to monopolize trade & dictate terms. They could impose their own prices that had no relation to the costs of production.
(v) The company used revenue of Bengal to finance exports of Indian goods.
Question 7: Explain the system of “subsidiary alliance”.
Answer: The system of the subsidiary alliance made Indian rulers let go of their armed forces and come under the protection of East India Company. The following changes occurred when this system came into being:
a. East India Company became the guardian of the territories that it took under the alliance
b. An English resident, who served as the EIC’s personnel, was appointed in the territory to keep a check on the ruler
c. The Indian rules were asked not to allow any other European companies to trade with them and enter their territory
d. Indian rulers were told to pay for the subsidiary armed forces of the EIC, disobeying which led to that part of the territory being forfeited by the company
Question 8: In what way was the administration of the Company different from that of Indian rulers?
Answer: (i) British territories were broadly divided into administrative units called
Presidencies. There were three Presidencies like – Bengal, Madras & Bombay whereas under the Indian rulers administration was divided into four parts – District (Zila), Paragana, Tehsil and Villages.
(ii) Each administrative unit was ruled by a Governor, whereas the Indian Administrative unit was ruled by Zamndars and peasants.
(iii) The supreme head of the administration was the Governor-General, whereas under the Indian Administrative system the supreme head was King or Nawab.
(iv) Warren Hastings introduced the new system of justice. Each district was to have two courts-Civil Court & Criminal Court.
(v) The European District Collector presided over Civil Courts.
(vi) The Criminal Courts were still under a Qazi and a Mufti.
(vii) Under the Regulating Act of 1773, a new Supreme Court and a Court of Appeal were established in Calcutta.
(viii) The main figure in an Indian District was Collector.
(ix) According to his title Collector, his main job was to collect the revenue and the taxes and maintain law & order in his district with the help of judges, police officers and darogas.
Question 9: Describe the changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army?
Answer: The changes that occurred in the composition of the Company’s army were as follows:
- The Company began recruitment for its own army, which came to be known as the sepoy army.
- Like the Mughal army, the Company’s army was also composed of the cavalry and the infantry regiments, with the cavalry dominating the army.
- As the warfare technology changed from the 1820s, the cavalry recruitments of the Company’s army declined.
- The soldiers of the Company’s army had to keep pace with changing military requirements and its infantry regiments now became more important.
- In the early 19th century the British began to develop a uniform military culture.
- Soldiers were increasingly subjected to European style training, drill, and discipline.
- Caste and community feelings were ignored.