NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 8 The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 contains solutions to the exercises given in the History book Our Pasts -III. These answers have been explained in a manner that you will easily understand all the concepts and get your doubts cleared without even seeking anyone’s assistance. You can read and download all the questions and answers in PDF format.
Class 8 History The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947 Questions and Answers
Question 1: Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
Answer: There was great dissatisfaction with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s. Some of the reasons for this dissatisfaction are as follows:
(i) The Arms Act- Passed in 1878, this Act disallowed Indians from possessing arms.
(ii) The Vernacular Press Act in 1878, this Act was aimed at silencing those who were critical of the government. Under this Act, the government could confiscate the assets of newspapers if they published anything that was found “objectionable”.
(iii) The Ilbert Bill controversy-In 1883, the government tried introducing the Ilbert Bill. This bill provided for the trial of British or European individuals by Indians, and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. However, the white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill. This enraged the Indians further.
Question 2: Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
Answer: Indian National Congress wished to speak for all the people of India, irrespective of class, colour, caste, creed, language, or gender. It stated that India, its resources and systems were not of any one class or community of India, but of all the different communities of India.
Question 3: What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
Answer: The First World War altered the economic and political situation in India. It led to a huge rise in the defence expenditure of the Government of India. The government, in turn, increased taxes on individual incomes and business profits. Increased military expenditure and the demands for war supplies led to a sharp rise in prices, which created great difficulties for the common people. On the other hand, business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war. The first world war caused a decline in imports from other countries into India.
Question 4: What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
Answer: The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for “Independent States” for Muslims in the North- Western and Eastern areas of the country.
Question 5: Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
Answer: The leaders of Congress in the first twenty years of its formation were termed as moderate. They proposed to struggle against the British in a non- violent manner. They wanted to develop public awareness about the unjust nature of British rule. They published many articles in the newspapers and journals highlighting about the increasing poverty of the country under the British rule. They criticised British rule in their speeches and sent representatives to different parts of the country to mobilise public support. They felt that the British had respect for the ideals of freedom and justice and so would accept the just demands of Indians. Therefore, their main aim was to express these demands and make the government aware of the feelings of Indians.
Question 6: HowwasthepoliticsoftheRadicalswithintheCongressdifferentfromthatofthe Moderates?
Answer: The Radicals were opposed to the “politics of prayers” followed by the Moderates within the Congress. They explored more radical objectives and methods. They emphasised the importance of self reliance and constructive work. They argued that people must rely on their own strength, not on the “good” intentions of the government (as was the stated policy of the Moderates). They believed that people must fight for swaraj.
Question 7: Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?
Answer: The places in the country showed different reactions, given below:
- At Kheda in Gujarat, Patidar peasants organised nonviolent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.
- In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed.
- In the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “forest satyagraha”, sometimes sending their cattle into forests without paying grazing fee.
- In Sind (now in Pakistan), Muslim traders and peasants were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call.
- In Bengal too, the Khilafat-Non-Cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement.
- In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikhs sought to remove corrupt mahants – supported by the British – from their gurdwaras.
People thought of Gandhiji as a kind of messiah, as someone who could help them overcome their misery and poverty. Gandhiji wished to build class unity and not class conflict. Yet, peasants could imagine that he would help them in their fight against zamindars, and agricultural labourers believed he would provide them with the land. At times, ordinary people credited Gandhiji with their own achievement.
Question 8: Why did Gandhiji choose to break the saltlaw ?
Answer: Gandhiji choosed to break the salt law as British government had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt. It also imposed a tax on the sale of salt. Gandhiji believed that it was sinful to tax salt as it was an essential part of food. He led a march to the coastal town of Dandi, where he broke the salt law by gathering natural salt found on the seashore, and boiling sea water to produce salt. This march related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance shared by everybody, and thus, did not divide the rich and the poor.
Question 9: Discuss those developments of the1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
Answer: The developments leading to the creation of Pakistan:
(i) A two-nation theory: From the late 1930s, the Muslim League began viewing the Muslims as a separate “nation” from the Hindus.
(ii) Provincial elections of 1937 -The provincial elections of 1937 convinced the League that Muslims were a minority, and they would always have to play second fiddle in any democratic structure. It feared that Muslims may even go unrepresented.
(iii) Rift between Congress and Muslim League: In 1937, the Congress rejected the Muslim League’s proposal for a joint Congress-League government in the United Provinces. This annoyed the League.
(iv) Wide mass support base for Muslim League: In the 1930s, the Congressfailed to mobilise the Muslim masses. This allowed the Muslim League to widen its social support. It sought to enlarge its support in the early 1940s when most Congress leaders were in jail.
(v) Failure of talks: At the end of the Second World War in 1945, the British opened negotiations between the Congress, the League and themselves for the independence of India. However, the talks failed as the League saw itself as the sole spokesperson of India’s Muslims, and the Congress could not accept this claim since a large number of Muslims still supported it.
(vi) Provincial elections of 1946: Electionsto the provinces were again held in 1946.The Congress did well in the “General” constituencies but the League’s success in the seats reserved for Muslims was spectacular. This led to more demands for a separate nation for Muslims.
(vii) Failure of talks again: In March 1946, the British cabinetsent a three-member mission to Delhi to examine this demand and to suggest a suitable political framework for a free India. This mission suggested that India should remain united and constitute itself as a loose confederation with some autonomy for Muslim-majority areas. But it could not get the Congress and the Muslim League to agree to specific details of the proposal. Partition was now more or less inevitable.
(viii) Mass agitation and riots: After the failure of the Cabinet Mission, the Muslim League decided on mass agitation for winning its Pakistan demand. It announced 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day”. On this day riots broke out in Calcutta, lasting several days and resulting in the death of thousands of people. By March 1947, violence had spread to different parts of Northern India.
(ix) Partition: Finally, the demand for the Partition of India was finalised, and “Pakistan” was born.