NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource contains the solutions to the exercises given in the textbook. These solutions also contain answers to all the let’s discuss questions. These NCERT solutions are useful for students as they help to score high marks in the exams.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 Let’s Discuss
Let’s Discuss Page no. 17
Question 1: Looking at the photograph can you explain how a doctor, teacher, engineer and a tailor are an asset to the economy?
Answer: (i) A population becomes human capital when there is an investment made in the form of education training and medical care.
(ii) Human capital is the stack of skills and productive knowledge embodied in them.
(iii) Investment made in the form of education and training in making a doctor, a teacher an engineer and a tailor, have increased their capabilities of providing different services to the people of the country and therefore they are an asset to the economy of a nation
Let’s Discuss Page no. 18
Question 1: Do you notice any difference between the two friends? What are those?
Answer: The differences between the two friends Sakal and Vilas were
(i) Vilas father died when Vilas was two years old whereas Sakal was living with his parents.
(ii) Sakal went to school but Vilas did not go to school.
(iii) Sakal was interested in studies whereas Vilas was not interested in studies.
(iv) Sakal did a course in computers and became employed whereas Vilas remained illiterate and was not employed
(v) The condition of Sakal and his family became better whereas Vilas and his family lived in poverty.
Let’s Discuss Page no. 21
Study the graph and answer the following questions:
Question 1: Has the literacy rates of the population increased since 1951?
Answer: Yes, the literacy rates of the population have increased since 1951 as shown below.
Question 2: In which year India has the highest literacy rates?
Answer: India has the highest literacy rates in 2001.
Question 3: Why literacy rate is high among the males of India?
Answer: India traditionally has a patriarchal male-dominated society where more importance is given to males. Culturally due to division of labour, the males go out of their homes and get better access to education. Poor families due to monetary constraints prefer to send only their sons to school and not their daughters.
Question 4: Why are women less educated than men?
Answer: Women are less educated than men because more preference is given to the boys or sons in the family for education as they are considered as future of the family. Traditionally, the girls were expected to stay at home and look after domestic chores. So, education among girls was not encouraged. Because, of the above reasons the women are less educated than men.
Question 5: How would you calculate literacy rate in India?
Answer: The literacy rate can be calculated on the basis of the formula i.e., the number of literate people divided by the population multiplied by 100.
Question 6: What is your projection about India’s literacy rate in 2020?
Answer: The projection about India’s literacy rate in the year 2010 would be between 75% to 85%.
Let’s Discuss Page no. 23
Discuss this table in the classroom and answer the following questions.
Question 1: Is the increase in the number of colleges adequate to admit the increasing number of students?
Answer: No, the increase in the number of colleges is not adequate to admit the increasing number of students because the number of students is increasing at a faster rate compared to the colleges being established.
Question 2: Do you think we should have more number of universities?
Answer: Seeing the ever-increasing number of students, we should establish more universities to cater to their needs. But at the same time, greater stress should be on opening more and more colleges.
Question 3: What is the increase noticed among the teachers in the year 1998–99.
Answer: There was an increase of 21 thousand teachers in the year 1998-99 compared to 1996- 97.
Question 4: What is your idea about future colleges and universities?
Answer: In future colleges and universities, stress should be on vocationalisation of education. There should also be a focus on distance education, and convergence of formal and informal, distance and IT education institutions. Colleges should be set up in rural areas to benefit rural students. Colleges and universities should focus on providing student-centred education.
Let’s Discuss Page no. 23-24
Study Table 2.2 and answer the following questions.
Question 1: What is the percentage increase in dispensaries from 1951 to 2015?
Question 2: What is the percentage increase in doctors and nursing personnel from 1951 to 2015?
Question 3: Do you think the increase in the number of doctors and nurses is adequate for India? If not, why?
Answer: No, the increase in the number of doctors and nurses is Inadequate because the ratio of both doctors and nursing personnel is still too low for India’s population.
Question 4: What other facilities would you like to provide in a hospital?
Answer: Other facilities we would like to provide in a hospital — (i) Hospitals should be spotlessly clean and hygienic.
Question 5: Discuss about the hospital you have visited?
Answer: I have visited the Anand Hospital in our city
(i) It is a 200 bed multi-specialist hospital and provides high class medical facilities.
(ii) It has state of the art operation theatres
(iii) It has various machines to carry out different kinds of tests like ultrasound, blood bank. MRI, etc.
(iv) It has a well-equipped pathology lab.
(v) It has a number of specialists in different branches of medicine.
(vi) It caters to the needs of the entire city and also to the surrounding rural areas.
(vii) It is centrally air-conditioned. It also has a medical store.
(viii) The only drawback is that being a private hospital the treatment for the patients is costly.
Question 6: Can you draw a graph using this table
Answer: Do it yourself.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 Exercises
Question 1: What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?
Answer: ‘People as a resource’ is a term that means how the population can be an asset and not a liability. It a way of referring to the working class of society in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. The population becomes human capital when an investment is done in the form of education and training. Education and health also help human beings to be an asset to the economy. Thus, people as a resource refers to the working population that results in the development of society.
Question 2: How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Answer: Human capital is in one respect preferable to other resources such as land and physical capital: the land and physical capital can be replaced by human resources. Land and physical resources alone can’t become useful.
Question 3: What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Answer: Education is the most important component of human resource development.
- Proper education and training enable the formation of this human capital. An educated population is an asset, a resource.
- Education enhances the quantity and quality of individual productivity, which in turn adds to the growth of the economy.
- It develops personality and sense of national consciousness among the people which are important for rapid economic growth.
Question 4: What is the role of health in human capital formation?
Answer: The health of a person helps him to realise his potential and the ability to fight illness. An unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organisation. Health is an indispensable basis for realising one’s well being. Henceforth, improvement in the health status of the population has been the priority of the country. Our national policy, too, aimed at improving the accessibility of healthcare, family welfare and nutritional service with special focus on the underprivileged segment of the population.
Question 5: What part does health play in the individual’s working life?
Answer: The health of an individual helps him to realise his potential and also gives him the ability to fight illness. An unhealthy individual is a liability to his place of work. The health of a person is directly related to his efficiency. As compared to an unhealthy individual, a healthy person can work more efficiently and with greater productivity.
Question 6: What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
Primary sector comprises activities related to the extraction and production of natural resources. Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining and quarrying are the activities undertaken in this sector.
Secondary sector comprises activities related to the processing of natural resources. Manufacturing is included in this sector.
Tertiary sector comprises activities that provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through various services. Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, insurance, etc., are examples of tertiary activities.
Question 7: What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
Answer: The activities that add value to the national income are called economic activities. They can be divided into two types: market activities and non-market activities. Market activities involve the activities performed for pay or profit and non-market activities include the production done for self-consumption.
The activities that add no value to the national income are called non- economic activities. The domestic chore is an example of non-economic activities.
Question 8: Why are women employed in low paid work?
Answer: When women enter the labour market, they are paid for their work. Their earnings are calculated on the basis of education and ability, much like that of their male counterpart. Most women are under-educated and have low skills training, and therefore women are paid low compared to men. Most women do work where there is no job security.
Question 9: How will you explain the term unemployment?
Answer: Unemployment is a situation in which people who are able and willing to work at the going wages cannot find jobs. An individual is termed as unemployed if he or she is part of the workforce of a country, and is capable and willing to work for payment, but is unable to do so.
Question 10: What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Answer: Disguised unemployment: When more persons are working in a job than actually required, the situation is termed as disguised unemployment. For example, if in an agricultural activity eight people are engaged but this work/activity actually requires the services of five people, then three persons are extra. If these three people out of eight are withdrawn, total production will remain unaffected.
Seasonal unemployment: Seasonal unemployment occurs when people are able to find jobs only during some months of the year. For Example, Agricultural labourers find work only during the busy seasons, i.e., sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing. This is because of the seasonal character of agriculture in India.
Question 11: Why is educated unemployed, a peculiar problem of India?
Answer: Educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon in India. Youths with matriculation, graduation and post-graduation degrees are unable to get jobs in India. This is because the education system in India labels anyone above the age of 18 years eligible to work. This leaves the youth unskilled and ultimately unemployed. It is important that an individual does not only have a degree but must also be skilled enough to get a job.
Question 12: In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?
Answer: India can build the maximum employment opportunity in the agricultural sector and its based industries. Agriculture is the most labour absorbing sector of the economy. When the efficient and quality packaging happen with agricultural products then it can generate a lot of employment opportunities.
Question 13: Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?
Answer: Some measures that can be taken in the education system to mitigate the problem of educated unemployed are as follows:
- Make secondary level education more career-oriented. This practice will not just help individuals get education but also enhance their skills and get better employment opportunities.
- An individual should be able to choose the subjects that suit his or her abilities.
- New subjects and fields of study should be introduced at the school level which can be opted a career in the future. This will open an opportunity for students to plan their future options at school level itself.
Question 14: Can you imagine some village which initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?
Answer: Students must answer this question based on their own experience.
Question 15: Which capital would you consider the best — land, labour, physical capital and human capital? Why?
Answer: Human capital makes use of the other resources like land, labour and physical capital to produce an output. The other resources cannot become useful on their own. Hence, human capital may well be considered the best among all the resources.