NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 1 The French Revolution are prepared by expert teachers. These solutions contain answers to all questions provided in History (India and the Contemporary World – I) textbook. Students can also download the PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 1 for free.
NCERT Book Solutions For Class 9 History Chapter 1
Question 1: Describe the circumstances leading to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
Answer: Following are some of the causes which had a cumulative effect to result in a revolution in France:
- The war with Britain for an independent America: This war led to mounting debt on the French monarchy. This necessitated the imposition of new taxes on the public.
- Privilege based on birth: People got privileges and position based on their lineage not on their merit. This led to resentment among common people.
- Concentration of power among the privileged: People belonging to the first and estate had all the power and money. Masses were at the mercy of this class.
- Subsistence Crisis: Rising population and less grain production resulted in the demand-supply gap of bread, which was the staple diet. Wages did not keep pace with rising prices. It was becoming difficult for people.
- Growing Middle Class: Because of increased overseas trade a new class emerged class was wealthy not because of birth but because of its ability to utilize People of the middle class started raising their voice for an end to based on lineage.
All of this led to a general sense of resentment among people. Certain thinkers of the period spread awareness through various media. Some from the privileged classes also advocated a switch to democracy. So, finally, there was a revolution in France.
Question 2: Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?
Answer: French society was divided into 3 estates. The third estate benefitted the most. The third estate consisted of Peasants, artisans, Small peasants, landless labour, servants, big businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers etc. The groups that were forced to relinquish power were the people belonging to the 1st and 2nd estate. These people had enjoyed certain privileges by birth. With the revolution, the people in 1st and 2nd estate lost their privileges. Because inequality was one of the root causes of the revolution, the revolution tried to bring equality to society
Question 3: Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Answer: The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished. It inspired the Germans, Italians, and Austrians to overthrow their oppressive regimes. The French Revolution inspired the struggling nations of Asia and Africa who were groaning under the oppression of European colonialism. Tipu Sultan and Rajaram Mohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to ideas coming from French revolution.
Question 4: Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Answer: The following fundamental rights, given in the Indian constitution can be traced to the French Revolution:
- The right to equality
- The right to freedom of speech and expression
- The right to freedom from exploitation
- The right to constitutional remedies
Question 5: Would you agree with the view that the message of universal rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
Answer: Women were disappointed that the Constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens. They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office. Only then, they felt, would their interests be represented in the new government. Women were ignored in the French constitution of 1791, which is a major contradiction with the view that the message of universal rights.
Question 6: How would you explain the rise of Napoleon?
Answer: After France became a republic in 1792, the then ruler, Robespeirre, gave more privileges to the wealthier section of society. Further, he was a sort of autocrat himself. This led to reign of terror for the following many years. After Robespeirre’s rule came to an end a directory was formed to avoid concentration of power in one individual. Members of the directory often fought among themselves leading to total chaos and political instability. This created a political vacuum in France. This was a conducive situation and Napoleon Bonaparte took the reign of power as a military dictator.