NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution are prepared by expert teachers. These solutions contain answers to all questions provided in History (India and the Contemporary World – I) textbook. Students can also download the PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 History Chapter 2 for free.

Class 9 History Europe and the Russian Revolution Questions and Answers

Question 1: What were the social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905?

Social Condition: Workers were a divided group. Some had strong links with the villages, others had settled permanently in cities. Workers were divided based on their skills. The division among workers also reflected in their dress and manners too.

Economic Condition: Most industries were the private property of industrialists. Government supervised large factories. The industry was found in pockets. Many factories were set up in the 1890s when Russia’s railway network was extended, foreign investment in industry increased, coal production had doubled and iron and steel output quadrupled. Most industries were the private property of industrialists.

Political condition: Political parties were illegal before 1914. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists who respected Marx’s ideas. In 1903, this party was divided into two groups – Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks, who were in the majority, were led by Lenin who is regarded as the greatest thinker on socialism after Marx.

Question 2: In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917?

Answer: The working population in Russia was different from other countries in Europe before 1917 because not all Russian workers migrated from the villages to work in the industrial sector. Some of them continued to live in villages and went to work daily, to the towns. They were a divided group, socially and professionally, and this showed in their dress and manners too. Metal workers were the “aristocrats” of the working class because their occupation demanded more training and skill. Nevertheless, the working population was united on one front – strikes against work conditions and employer tyranny.

Question 3: Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?

Answer: The Tsar first dismissed the initial two Dumas and then packed the parliament with the conservatives. During the First World War, the Tsar took decisions without consulting the Duma. Large scale casualties of Russian soldiers in the war further alienated the people from the Tsar. Burning of crops and buildings by the retreating Russian armies created a huge shortage of food in Russia. All of these led to the collapse of the Tsarist autocracy in 1917.

Question 4: Make two lists: one with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each, who were the leaders and what was the influence of each on Soviet history.

Answer: February Revolution:

  • 22nd February: Factory lockout on the right bank took place,
  • 25th February: Duma was dissolved.
  • 27th February: Police Headquarters ransacked. Regiments support the workers. Formation of Soviet.
  • 2nd March: The Tsar abdicated his power. The Soviet and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government for Russia. 

The February Revolution had no political party at its forefront. It was led by the people themselves. Petrograd had brought down the monarchy, and thus, gained a significant place in Soviet history. Trade Unions grew in number.

October Revolution:

  • 16th October: A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by Soviet.
  • 24th October: The uprising against the provisional government begins. Military Revolutionary Committee controls the city by night and ministers surrender. The Bolshevik gained power.

The October Revolution was primarily led by Lenin and his sub-ordinate Trotskii, and involved the masses who supported these leaders. It marked the beginning of Lenin’s rule over the Soviet, with the Bolsheviks under his guidance.

Question 5: What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Answer: The main changes which were brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution:

  • Industries and banks were nationalised by November 1917, Government took over ownership and management.
  • The land was declared as a social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land of the nobility.
  • In the cities, Bolsheviks enforced the partition of large houses according to family requirements.
  • Old titles of the aristocracy were banned.
  • New uniforms were designed for the army and officials.
  • Bolshevik Party was renamed as the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)
  • Bolsheviks conducted elections to the constituent assembly, however, they failed to attain the majority, Assembly rejected the Bolshevik measures and Lenin dismissed the assembly.
  • All Russian Congress of Soviets became Parliament of the country. Russia became a one-party state.
  • Trade unions were kept under party control, the Secret Police punished anyone who criticised the Bolsheviks. Many young artists and writers continued to support the Party as it stood for Socialism.
  • Many experiments were done in Arts and Architecture. But many artists were unhappy because of the censorship.

Question 6: Write a few lines to show what you know about:
(i) Kulaks
(ii) The Duma
(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930.
(iv) The Liberals.
(v) Stalin’s collectivization programme.

kulaks: It is the Russian term for wealthy peasants who Stalin believed were hoarding grains to gain more profit. By 1927-28 the towns of Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. Kulaks were thought to be partly responsible for this. Also to develop modern farms and run them along industrial lines the Party under the leadership of Stalin thought it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks.

The Duma: During the 1905 Revolution, the Tsar allowed the creation of an elected consultative parliament in Russia. This elected consultative parliament in Russia was called Duma. 

Women workers between 1900 and 1930: They made up 31% of the factory labour force by 1914 but were paid almost half and three-quarters of the wages given to men. However, interestingly, it was the women workers who led the way to strikes during the February Revolution.

The Liberals: They espoused a nation that was tolerant towards all religions; one that would protect individual rights against the government. Although the liberals wanted an elected parliamentary form of governance, they believed that the right to vote must only belong to men and that too the ones who were property holders.

Stalin’s collectivisation programme: Stalin believed that collectivization of agriculture would help in improving grains supplies in Russia. He began collectivization in 1929. All peasants were forced to cultivate in collective farms (kolhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farm. Many peasants protested such attempts and destroyed livestock to show their anger. Collectivization did not bring the desired results in the food supply situation turned even worse in subsequent years.

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